Jen-tsung/Renzong (1139-1193) ruled the Mi-nyag (a.k.a. Tangut or Hsia) people from 1169-1193. The relationships he formed with Tibetan Buddhist lamas is recognized as having marked the origin of imperial preceptorship (ti-shi), an institution that would be replicated in subsequent relations between Buddhist teachers and Central or East Asian rulers. Jen-tsung sponsored large-scale Buddhist ceremonies as well as the publishing of Buddhist canons in Chinese, Tibetan and Tangut languages. His extensive support of and close interaction with Buddhists laid the ground and provided a model for later dynasties’ involvement with Tibetan Buddhism. The legacy of his patronage of Buddhism also contributed to the posterity of Mi-nyag, a culture whose history might otherwise have been obscured completely.

  • Dunnell, Ruth. “The Hsia Origins of the Yuan Institution of Imperial Preceptor,” in Asia Major. Third Series. Vol. 1, part 1, 1992. p 85-111.