Yuzhi Man Han Menggu Xifan hebi dazang quanzhou 御製滿漢蒙古西番合壁大藏全咒

This text, which included dharani and mantra in Manchu, Chinese, Mongolian, and Tibetan, was printed and distributed to monasteries throughout the empire in 1773. It restored the proper sounds of Buddhist dharani and mantra, most of which had been rendered in Chinese in the Tang dynasty and were, by the 18th century, pronounced very differently and thus no longer zhenyan 真言—“true speech.” The Qianlong emperor’s uncle, Zhuang Qinwang Yinlu 莊親王胤祿 (1695-1767) supervised this project between 1748 and 1758, using Tibetan sources as a guide to proper pronunciation. His four-part compilation, titled in Chinese Yuzhi Man Han Menggu Xifan hebi dazang quanzhou 御製滿漢蒙古西番合壁大藏全咒.

  • Berger, Patricia, “The Jiaqing Emperor’s Magnificent Record of the Western Tour.” Wutaishan and Qing Culture, ed. Gray Tuttle and Johan Eleverskog, forthcoming