lamas-and-emperors



Ruling Inner Asia from Beijing: Lamas and Emperors


Late imperial China was marked by a multi-ethnic tradition of rulership that built on the foundations of the so-called “conquest dynasties.” This site will survey the central people, places, art and institutions that made Tibetan Buddhism as a religious ideology central to late imperial efforts at making China a multi-ethnic state. This ideology has served to link China with Tibetan and Mongolia regions of Inner Asia—through the imperial center at Beijing—for over seven hundred years. This tradition, which had its origins in the Xia or Minyak empire, developed significantly in the Mongol Yuan empire and was adopted on and off during the Chinese Ming imperial period. The last emperors of China were ethnic Manchus who expanded the Qing empire to include Mongolia and Tibet. This site will also explore the connections between the imperial family and the Tibetan Buddhist lamas who were responsible for court rituals and diplomacy.

Chronology


Minyak/Xi Xia Empire (1038-1227)


People:
Gtsang po pa Dkon mchog seng ge
Renzong
*Mahâkâla-(A Minyak Deity Figure)*

Place:

Liangzhou

Mongol Empire (1206-1380; Yuan Dynasty 1271-1368)


Positions:

Imperial Preceptor
Dynastic Preceptor

People:

Khubilai Khan
'Phags-pa
Chengzong, Wenzong, Shundi
Dam pa Kun dga' grags
Guanzhuba
Köden
Sa-skya Pandita
Sangge
Sha-lo-pa-Kuan-chao
Yang Lianzhenjia
Ye Shes Rin Chen

Arts & Texts:
Yuan Buddhist Canon Printing
Multilingual text canon Zhiyuanlu
Snar thang Canon

Places:
Feilai Feng
Zhuo Zhou
Juyong Guan
Da huguo renwang si
Baita Shan Beihai Gongyuan (Qing period Baita, White Stupa in Beihai, and ritual activity there in Yuan period)
Da sheng shuo wan an si (Baita, White Stupa monastery)

Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)


Positions:

Guoshi
Chanshi

People:

Bsod nams rgya mtsho-The Third Dalai Lama
dpal Idan bkra shis
Monk Officials of Gling tshang
The Fifth Karma-pa
The Yongle Emperor

Arts & Texts:

Karmapa Scroll
Zhufopusa

Places:

Wutaishan Pusading
Dabaoji Gong
Honghua Si
Qutan Si
Fahai Si
Fayuan Si
Linggu Si

Qing Dynasty (1644-1912)


Position:

Jasagh Da Lama-Jasagh Lama

People:

Ba Erdeni Lama
Bagha Ba Lama
The Kangxi Emperor
Hong Taiji
Lcang skya Rol pa'i rdo rje
Nurhaci
Olug Darhan Nangso
Shizu-Shunzhi
The Yongzheng Emperor
Zanabazar Jebtsundampa Khutukhtu

Arts & Texts:

Qianlong Lama Shuo Pronouncement
Qianlong Pentaglot Dictionary
Tibetan Buddhist Canon Printing
Wutaishan's Panoramic Map-Cifusi
Two Lamaistic Pantheons
Mantras Yuzhi Man Han Menggu Xifan Hebi Dazang Quanzhu
Multilingual Texts during Qianlong Reign

Places:

Chengde-Rehe
Chengde Pule Si
Chengde Puning Si
Chengde Shuxiang Si
Chengde Xumifushou Si
Cining Palace and its Baoxiang Lou
Huang Si
Shenyang(Mukden) Mahakala Complex
Dolonor Huizong Si
Yonghe Gong
Yuhuashi and Potala Temple


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